GCC Middle and Back End API Reference
ira.h File Reference
#include "emit-rtl.h"
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Data Structures

struct  target_ira
struct  ira_reg_equiv_s


#define this_target_ira   (&default_target_ira)
#define ira_hard_regno_allocno_class    (this_target_ira->x_ira_hard_regno_allocno_class)
#define ira_allocno_classes_num    (this_target_ira->x_ira_allocno_classes_num)
#define ira_allocno_classes    (this_target_ira->x_ira_allocno_classes)
#define ira_allocno_class_translate    (this_target_ira->x_ira_allocno_class_translate)
#define ira_pressure_classes_num    (this_target_ira->x_ira_pressure_classes_num)
#define ira_pressure_classes    (this_target_ira->x_ira_pressure_classes)
#define ira_pressure_class_translate    (this_target_ira->x_ira_pressure_class_translate)
#define ira_stack_reg_pressure_class    (this_target_ira->x_ira_stack_reg_pressure_class)
#define ira_reg_class_max_nregs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_class_max_nregs)
#define ira_reg_class_min_nregs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_class_min_nregs)
#define ira_memory_move_cost    (this_target_ira->x_ira_memory_move_cost)
#define ira_class_hard_regs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_class_hard_regs)
#define ira_class_hard_regs_num    (this_target_ira->x_ira_class_hard_regs_num)
#define ira_class_subset_p    (this_target_ira->x_ira_class_subset_p)
#define ira_reg_class_subset    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_class_subset)
#define ira_reg_classes_intersect_p    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_classes_intersect_p)
#define ira_class_singleton    (this_target_ira->x_ira_class_singleton)
#define ira_no_alloc_regs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_no_alloc_regs)
#define ira_prohibited_class_mode_regs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_prohibited_class_mode_regs)
#define ira_exclude_class_mode_regs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_exclude_class_mode_regs)


void ira_init_once (void)
void ira_init (void)
void ira_setup_eliminable_regset (void)
rtx ira_eliminate_regs (rtx, machine_mode)
void ira_set_pseudo_classes (bool, FILE *)
void ira_expand_reg_equiv (void)
void ira_update_equiv_info_by_shuffle_insn (int, int, rtx_insn *)
void ira_sort_regnos_for_alter_reg (int *, int, machine_mode *)
void ira_mark_allocation_change (int)
void ira_mark_memory_move_deletion (int, int)
bool ira_reassign_pseudos (int *, int, HARD_REG_SET, HARD_REG_SET *, HARD_REG_SET *, bitmap)
rtx ira_reuse_stack_slot (int, poly_uint64, poly_uint64)
void ira_mark_new_stack_slot (rtx, int, poly_uint64)
bool ira_better_spill_reload_regno_p (int *, int *, rtx, rtx, rtx_insn *)
bool ira_bad_reload_regno (int, rtx, rtx)
void ira_adjust_equiv_reg_cost (unsigned, int)
bool ira_former_scratch_p (int regno)
bool ira_former_scratch_operand_p (rtx_insn *insn, int nop)
void ira_register_new_scratch_op (rtx_insn *insn, int nop, int icode)
bool ira_remove_insn_scratches (rtx_insn *insn, bool all_p, FILE *dump_file, rtx(*get_reg)(rtx original))
void ira_restore_scratches (FILE *dump_file)
void ira_nullify_asm_goto (rtx_insn *insn)
void ira_costs_cc_finalize (void)
rtx non_conflicting_reg_copy_p (rtx_insn *)
bool non_spilled_static_chain_regno_p (int regno)


bool ira_use_lra_p
bool ira_conflicts_p
struct target_ira default_target_ira
int ira_reg_equiv_len
struct ira_reg_equiv_sira_reg_equiv

Macro Definition Documentation

◆ ira_allocno_class_translate

◆ ira_allocno_classes

◆ ira_allocno_classes_num

◆ ira_class_hard_regs

◆ ira_class_hard_regs_num

◆ ira_class_singleton

◆ ira_class_subset_p

◆ ira_exclude_class_mode_regs

#define ira_exclude_class_mode_regs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_exclude_class_mode_regs)

◆ ira_hard_regno_allocno_class

#define ira_hard_regno_allocno_class    (this_target_ira->x_ira_hard_regno_allocno_class)

◆ ira_memory_move_cost

◆ ira_no_alloc_regs

◆ ira_pressure_class_translate

◆ ira_pressure_classes

◆ ira_pressure_classes_num

◆ ira_prohibited_class_mode_regs

◆ ira_reg_class_max_nregs

◆ ira_reg_class_min_nregs

#define ira_reg_class_min_nregs    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_class_min_nregs)

◆ ira_reg_class_subset

#define ira_reg_class_subset    (this_target_ira->x_ira_reg_class_subset)

◆ ira_reg_classes_intersect_p

◆ ira_stack_reg_pressure_class

#define ira_stack_reg_pressure_class    (this_target_ira->x_ira_stack_reg_pressure_class)

◆ this_target_ira

#define this_target_ira   (&default_target_ira)

Function Documentation

◆ ira_adjust_equiv_reg_cost()

void ira_adjust_equiv_reg_cost ( unsigned regno,
int cost )
A hook from the reload pass.  Add COST to the estimated gain for eliminating
REGNO with its equivalence.  If COST is zero, record that no such
elimination is possible.   

References costs::cost, ira_assert, ira_use_lra_p, and regno_equiv_gains.

Referenced by calculate_elim_costs_all_insns(), and note_reg_elim_costly().

◆ ira_bad_reload_regno()

bool ira_bad_reload_regno ( int regno,
rtx in,
rtx out )
Return nonzero if REGNO is a particularly bad choice for reloading
IN or OUT.   

References ira_bad_reload_regno_1().

Referenced by allocate_reload_reg().

◆ ira_better_spill_reload_regno_p()

bool ira_better_spill_reload_regno_p ( int * regnos,
int * other_regnos,
rtx in,
rtx out,
rtx_insn * insn )
Return TRUE if spilling pseudo-registers whose numbers are in array
REGNOS is better than spilling pseudo-registers with numbers in
OTHER_REGNOS for reload with given IN and OUT for INSN.  The
function used by the reload pass to make better register spilling

References calculate_spill_cost(), and inv_reg_alloc_order.

Referenced by find_reg().

◆ ira_costs_cc_finalize()

void ira_costs_cc_finalize ( void )

References this_target_ira_int.

Referenced by toplev::finalize().

◆ ira_eliminate_regs()

rtx ira_eliminate_regs ( rtx ,
machine_mode  )

◆ ira_expand_reg_equiv()

void ira_expand_reg_equiv ( void )

◆ ira_former_scratch_operand_p()

bool ira_former_scratch_operand_p ( rtx_insn * insn,
int nop )
Return true if the operand NOP of INSN is a former scratch.    

References bitmap_bit_p, sloc::insn, INSN_UID(), sloc::nop, and scratch_operand_bitmap.

◆ ira_former_scratch_p()

bool ira_former_scratch_p ( int regno)

◆ ira_init()

◆ ira_init_once()

void ira_init_once ( void )
This is called once during compiler work.  It sets up
different arrays whose values don't depend on the compiled

References ira_init_costs_once(), ira_use_lra_p, lra_init_once(), and targetm.

Referenced by initialize_rtl().

◆ ira_mark_allocation_change()

void ira_mark_allocation_change ( int regno)
This page contains code used by the reload pass to improve the
final code.   
The function is called from reload to mark changes in the
allocation of REGNO made by the reload.  Remember that reg_renumber
reflects the change result.   

References a, ALLOCNO_CLASS, ALLOCNO_CLASS_COST, ALLOCNO_HARD_REG_COSTS, ALLOCNO_HARD_REGNO, ALLOCNO_MEMORY_COST, ira_assert, ira_class_hard_reg_index, ira_overall_cost, ira_regno_allocno_map, NULL, reg_renumber, and update_costs_from_copies().

Referenced by delete_output_reload(), emit_input_reload_insns(), finish_spills(), and ira_reassign_pseudos().

◆ ira_mark_memory_move_deletion()

void ira_mark_memory_move_deletion ( int dst_regno,
int src_regno )
This function is called when reload deletes memory-memory move.  In
this case we marks that the allocation of the corresponding
allocnos should be not changed in future.  Otherwise we risk to get
a wrong code.   

References ALLOCNO_DONT_REASSIGN_P, ALLOCNO_HARD_REGNO, ira_assert, ira_regno_allocno_map, and NULL.

Referenced by calculate_needs_all_insns().

◆ ira_mark_new_stack_slot()

void ira_mark_new_stack_slot ( rtx x,
int regno,
poly_uint64 total_size )
This is called by reload every time a new stack slot X with
TOTAL_SIZE was allocated for REGNO.  We store this info for
subsequent ira_reuse_stack_slot calls.   

References ALLOCNO_HARD_REGNO, INIT_REG_SET, internal_flag_ira_verbose, ira_assert, ira_dump_file, ira_regno_allocno_map, ira_spilled_reg_stack_slots, ira_spilled_reg_stack_slots_num, ira_use_lra_p, known_le, slot::mem, PSEUDO_REGNO_BYTES, REG_FREQ, and SET_REGNO_REG_SET.

Referenced by alter_reg().

◆ ira_nullify_asm_goto()

void ira_nullify_asm_goto ( rtx_insn * insn)
Modify asm goto to avoid further trouble with this insn.  We can
not replace the insn by USE as in other asm insns as we still
need to keep CFG consistency.   

References ASM_OPERANDS_LABEL_VEC, ASM_OPERANDS_SOURCE_LOCATION, extract_asm_operands(), ggc_strdup, INSN_CODE, ira_assert, JUMP_P, PATTERN(), and rtvec_alloc().

Referenced by curr_insn_transform(), find_reloads(), and lra_asm_insn_error().

◆ ira_reassign_pseudos()

bool ira_reassign_pseudos ( int * spilled_pseudo_regs,
int num,
HARD_REG_SET bad_spill_regs,
HARD_REG_SET * pseudo_forbidden_regs,
HARD_REG_SET * pseudo_previous_regs,
bitmap spilled )
Try to allocate hard registers to SPILLED_PSEUDO_REGS (there are
NUM of them) or spilled pseudos conflicting with pseudos in
SPILLED_PSEUDO_REGS.  Return TRUE and update SPILLED, if the
allocation has been changed.  The function doesn't use
BAD_SPILL_REGS and hard registers in PSEUDO_FORBIDDEN_REGS and
PSEUDO_PREVIOUS_REGS for the corresponding pseudos.  The function
is called by the reload pass at the end of each reload

References a, ALLOCNO_CLASS_COST, ALLOCNO_DONT_REASSIGN_P, ALLOCNO_HARD_REGNO, ALLOCNO_MEMORY_COST, ALLOCNO_NUM, ALLOCNO_NUM_OBJECTS, ALLOCNO_OBJECT, ALLOCNO_REGNO, allocno_reload_assign(), bad_spill_regs, BITMAP_ALLOC, BITMAP_FREE, bitmap_set_bit, CLEAR_REGNO_REG_SET, consideration_allocno_bitmap, FOR_EACH_OBJECT_CONFLICT, gcc_assert, i, internal_flag_ira_verbose, ira_assert, ira_dump_file, ira_mark_allocation_change(), ira_regno_allocno_map, nr, NULL, OBJECT_ALLOCNO, pseudo_forbidden_regs, pseudo_previous_regs, pseudo_reg_compare(), qsort, and reg_renumber.

Referenced by finish_spills().

◆ ira_register_new_scratch_op()

void ira_register_new_scratch_op ( rtx_insn * insn,
int nop,
int icode )
Register operand NOP in INSN as a former scratch.  It will be
changed to scratch back, if it is necessary, at the LRA end.   

References add_reg_note(), bitmap_set_bit, sloc::icode, sloc::insn, INSN_UID(), ira_assert, sloc::nop, recog_data_d::operand_loc, recog_data, REG_P, REGNO, sloc::regno, scratch_bitmap, scratch_operand_bitmap, and scratches.

Referenced by ira_remove_insn_scratches(), and update_scratch_ops().

◆ ira_remove_insn_scratches()

bool ira_remove_insn_scratches ( rtx_insn * insn,
bool all_p,
FILE * dump_file,
rtx(* get_reg )(rtx original) )

◆ ira_restore_scratches()

◆ ira_reuse_stack_slot()

rtx ira_reuse_stack_slot ( int regno,
poly_uint64 inherent_size,
poly_uint64 total_size )

◆ ira_set_pseudo_classes()

void ira_set_pseudo_classes ( bool define_pseudo_classes,
FILE * dump_file )
Entry function which defines classes for pseudos.
Set pseudo_classes_defined_p only if DEFINE_PSEUDO_CLASSES is true.   

References allocno_p, cost_elements_num, dump_file, find_costs_and_classes(), finish_costs(), finish_regno_cost_classes(), init_costs(), initiate_regno_cost_classes(), internal_flag_ira_verbose, ira_dump_file, max_reg_num(), and pseudo_classes_defined_p.

Referenced by ira(), move_loop_invariants(), and one_code_hoisting_pass().

◆ ira_setup_eliminable_regset()

◆ ira_sort_regnos_for_alter_reg()

◆ ira_update_equiv_info_by_shuffle_insn()

void ira_update_equiv_info_by_shuffle_insn ( int to_regno,
int from_regno,
rtx_insn * insns )
Update equiv regno from movement of FROM_REGNO to TO_REGNO.  INSNS
are insns which were generated for such movement.  It is assumed
that FROM_REGNO and TO_REGNO always have the same value at the
point of any move containing such registers. This function is used
to update equiv info for register shuffles on the region borders
and for caller save/restore insns.   

References ira_reg_equiv_s::caller_save_p, ira_reg_equiv_s::constant, copy_rtx(), ira_reg_equiv_s::defined_p, dump_value_slim(), find_reg_note(), gcc_assert, gen_rtx_INSN_LIST(), ira_reg_equiv_s::init_insns, INSN_UID(), insns, internal_flag_ira_verbose, ira_reg_equiv_s::invariant, ira_assert, ira_dump_file, ira_reg_equiv, MEM_READONLY_P, ira_reg_equiv_s::memory, NEXT_INSN(), NULL, NULL_RTX, rtx_equal_p(), and set_unique_reg_note().

Referenced by emit_move_list().

◆ non_conflicting_reg_copy_p()

rtx non_conflicting_reg_copy_p ( rtx_insn * insn)
Determine whether INSN is a register to register copy of the type where
we do not need to make the source and destiniation registers conflict.
If this is a copy instruction, then return the source reg.  Otherwise,
return NULL_RTX.   

References GET_MODE, HARD_REGISTER_NUM_P, hard_regno_nregs(), NULL_RTX, REG_P, REGNO, SET_DEST, SET_SRC, side_effects_p(), single_set(), and targetm.

Referenced by process_bb_lives(), and process_bb_node_lives().

◆ non_spilled_static_chain_regno_p()

bool non_spilled_static_chain_regno_p ( int regno)
Spilling static chain pseudo may result in generation of wrong
non-local goto code using frame-pointer to address saved stack
pointer value after restoring old frame pointer value.  The
function returns TRUE if REGNO is such a static chain pseudo.   

References cfun, crtl, REG_EXPR, and regno_reg_rtx.

Referenced by allocno_priority_compare_func(), allocno_spill_priority_compare(), assign_hard_reg(), find_costs_and_classes(), move_spill_restore(), pseudo_compare_func(), setup_profitable_hard_regs(), and spill_for().

Variable Documentation

◆ default_target_ira

struct target_ira default_target_ira
Integrated Register Allocator (IRA) entry point.
   Copyright (C) 2006-2024 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   Contributed by Vladimir Makarov <vmakarov@redhat.com>.

This file is part of GCC.

GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later

GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
The integrated register allocator (IRA) is a
  regional register allocator performing graph coloring on a top-down
  traversal of nested regions.  Graph coloring in a region is based
  on Chaitin-Briggs algorithm.  It is called integrated because
  register coalescing, register live range splitting, and choosing a
  better hard register are done on-the-fly during coloring.  Register
  coalescing and choosing a cheaper hard register is done by hard
  register preferencing during hard register assigning.  The live
  range splitting is a byproduct of the regional register allocation.

  Major IRA notions are:

    o *Region* is a part of CFG where graph coloring based on
      Chaitin-Briggs algorithm is done.  IRA can work on any set of
      nested CFG regions forming a tree.  Currently the regions are
      the entire function for the root region and natural loops for
      the other regions.  Therefore data structure representing a
      region is called loop_tree_node.

    o *Allocno class* is a register class used for allocation of
      given allocno.  It means that only hard register of given
      register class can be assigned to given allocno.  In reality,
      even smaller subset of (*profitable*) hard registers can be
      assigned.  In rare cases, the subset can be even smaller
      because our modification of Chaitin-Briggs algorithm requires
      that sets of hard registers can be assigned to allocnos forms a
      forest, i.e. the sets can be ordered in a way where any
      previous set is not intersected with given set or is a superset
      of given set.

    o *Pressure class* is a register class belonging to a set of
      register classes containing all of the hard-registers available
      for register allocation.  The set of all pressure classes for a
      target is defined in the corresponding machine-description file
      according some criteria.  Register pressure is calculated only
      for pressure classes and it affects some IRA decisions as
      forming allocation regions.

    o *Allocno* represents the live range of a pseudo-register in a
      region.  Besides the obvious attributes like the corresponding
      pseudo-register number, allocno class, conflicting allocnos and
      conflicting hard-registers, there are a few allocno attributes
      which are important for understanding the allocation algorithm:

      - *Live ranges*.  This is a list of ranges of *program points*
        where the allocno lives.  Program points represent places
        where a pseudo can be born or become dead (there are
        approximately two times more program points than the insns)
        and they are represented by integers starting with 0.  The
        live ranges are used to find conflicts between allocnos.
        They also play very important role for the transformation of
        the IRA internal representation of several regions into a one
        region representation.  The later is used during the reload
        pass work because each allocno represents all of the
        corresponding pseudo-registers.

      - *Hard-register costs*.  This is a vector of size equal to the
        number of available hard-registers of the allocno class.  The
        cost of a callee-clobbered hard-register for an allocno is
        increased by the cost of save/restore code around the calls
        through the given allocno's life.  If the allocno is a move
        instruction operand and another operand is a hard-register of
        the allocno class, the cost of the hard-register is decreased
        by the move cost.

        When an allocno is assigned, the hard-register with minimal
        full cost is used.  Initially, a hard-register's full cost is
        the corresponding value from the hard-register's cost vector.
        If the allocno is connected by a *copy* (see below) to
        another allocno which has just received a hard-register, the
        cost of the hard-register is decreased.  Before choosing a
        hard-register for an allocno, the allocno's current costs of
        the hard-registers are modified by the conflict hard-register
        costs of all of the conflicting allocnos which are not
        assigned yet.

      - *Conflict hard-register costs*.  This is a vector of the same
        size as the hard-register costs vector.  To permit an
        unassigned allocno to get a better hard-register, IRA uses
        this vector to calculate the final full cost of the
        available hard-registers.  Conflict hard-register costs of an
        unassigned allocno are also changed with a change of the
        hard-register cost of the allocno when a copy involving the
        allocno is processed as described above.  This is done to
        show other unassigned allocnos that a given allocno prefers
        some hard-registers in order to remove the move instruction
        corresponding to the copy.

    o *Cap*.  If a pseudo-register does not live in a region but
      lives in a nested region, IRA creates a special allocno called
      a cap in the outer region.  A region cap is also created for a
      subregion cap.

    o *Copy*.  Allocnos can be connected by copies.  Copies are used
      to modify hard-register costs for allocnos during coloring.
      Such modifications reflects a preference to use the same
      hard-register for the allocnos connected by copies.  Usually
      copies are created for move insns (in this case it results in
      register coalescing).  But IRA also creates copies for operands
      of an insn which should be assigned to the same hard-register
      due to constraints in the machine description (it usually
      results in removing a move generated in reload to satisfy
      the constraints) and copies referring to the allocno which is
      the output operand of an instruction and the allocno which is
      an input operand dying in the instruction (creation of such
      copies results in less register shuffling).  IRA *does not*
      create copies between the same register allocnos from different
      regions because we use another technique for propagating
      hard-register preference on the borders of regions.

  Allocnos (including caps) for the upper region in the region tree
  *accumulate* information important for coloring from allocnos with
  the same pseudo-register from nested regions.  This includes
  hard-register and memory costs, conflicts with hard-registers,
  allocno conflicts, allocno copies and more.  *Thus, attributes for
  allocnos in a region have the same values as if the region had no
  subregions*.  It means that attributes for allocnos in the
  outermost region corresponding to the function have the same values
  as though the allocation used only one region which is the entire
  function.  It also means that we can look at IRA work as if the
  first IRA did allocation for all function then it improved the
  allocation for loops then their subloops and so on.

  IRA major passes are:

    o Building IRA internal representation which consists of the
      following subpasses:

      * First, IRA builds regions and creates allocnos (file
        ira-build.cc) and initializes most of their attributes.

      * Then IRA finds an allocno class for each allocno and
        calculates its initial (non-accumulated) cost of memory and
        each hard-register of its allocno class (file ira-cost.c).

      * IRA creates live ranges of each allocno, calculates register
        pressure for each pressure class in each region, sets up
        conflict hard registers for each allocno and info about calls
        the allocno lives through (file ira-lives.cc).

      * IRA removes low register pressure loops from the regions
        mostly to speed IRA up (file ira-build.cc).

      * IRA propagates accumulated allocno info from lower region
        allocnos to corresponding upper region allocnos (file

      * IRA creates all caps (file ira-build.cc).

      * Having live-ranges of allocnos and their classes, IRA creates
        conflicting allocnos for each allocno.  Conflicting allocnos
        are stored as a bit vector or array of pointers to the
        conflicting allocnos whatever is more profitable (file
        ira-conflicts.cc).  At this point IRA creates allocno copies.

    o Coloring.  Now IRA has all necessary info to start graph coloring
      process.  It is done in each region on top-down traverse of the
      region tree (file ira-color.cc).  There are following subpasses:

      * Finding profitable hard registers of corresponding allocno
        class for each allocno.  For example, only callee-saved hard
        registers are frequently profitable for allocnos living
        through colors.  If the profitable hard register set of
        allocno does not form a tree based on subset relation, we use
        some approximation to form the tree.  This approximation is
        used to figure out trivial colorability of allocnos.  The
        approximation is a pretty rare case.

      * Putting allocnos onto the coloring stack.  IRA uses Briggs
        optimistic coloring which is a major improvement over
        Chaitin's coloring.  Therefore IRA does not spill allocnos at
        this point.  There is some freedom in the order of putting
        allocnos on the stack which can affect the final result of
        the allocation.  IRA uses some heuristics to improve the
        order.  The major one is to form *threads* from colorable
        allocnos and push them on the stack by threads.  Thread is a
        set of non-conflicting colorable allocnos connected by
        copies.  The thread contains allocnos from the colorable
        bucket or colorable allocnos already pushed onto the coloring
        stack.  Pushing thread allocnos one after another onto the
        stack increases chances of removing copies when the allocnos
        get the same hard reg.
        We also use a modification of Chaitin-Briggs algorithm which
        works for intersected register classes of allocnos.  To
        figure out trivial colorability of allocnos, the mentioned
        above tree of hard register sets is used.  To get an idea how
        the algorithm works in i386 example, let us consider an
        allocno to which any general hard register can be assigned.
        If the allocno conflicts with eight allocnos to which only
        EAX register can be assigned, given allocno is still
        trivially colorable because all conflicting allocnos might be
        assigned only to EAX and all other general hard registers are
        still free.

        To get an idea of the used trivial colorability criterion, it
        is also useful to read article "Graph-Coloring Register
        Allocation for Irregular Architectures" by Michael D. Smith
        and Glen Holloway.  Major difference between the article
        approach and approach used in IRA is that Smith's approach
        takes register classes only from machine description and IRA
        calculate register classes from intermediate code too
        (e.g. an explicit usage of hard registers in RTL code for
        parameter passing can result in creation of additional
        register classes which contain or exclude the hard
        registers).  That makes IRA approach useful for improving
        coloring even for architectures with regular register files
        and in fact some benchmarking shows the improvement for
        regular class architectures is even bigger than for irregular
        ones.  Another difference is that Smith's approach chooses
        intersection of classes of all insn operands in which a given
        pseudo occurs.  IRA can use bigger classes if it is still
        more profitable than memory usage.

      * Popping the allocnos from the stack and assigning them hard
        registers.  If IRA cannot assign a hard register to an
        allocno and the allocno is coalesced, IRA undoes the
        coalescing and puts the uncoalesced allocnos onto the stack in
        the hope that some such allocnos will get a hard register
        separately.  If IRA fails to assign hard register or memory
        is more profitable for it, IRA spills the allocno.  IRA
        assigns the allocno the hard-register with minimal full
        allocation cost which reflects the cost of usage of the
        hard-register for the allocno and cost of usage of the
        hard-register for allocnos conflicting with given allocno.

      * Chaitin-Briggs coloring assigns as many pseudos as possible
        to hard registers.  After coloring we try to improve
        allocation with cost point of view.  We improve the
        allocation by spilling some allocnos and assigning the freed
        hard registers to other allocnos if it decreases the overall
        allocation cost.

      * After allocno assigning in the region, IRA modifies the hard
        register and memory costs for the corresponding allocnos in
        the subregions to reflect the cost of possible loads, stores,
        or moves on the border of the region and its subregions.
        When default regional allocation algorithm is used
        (-fira-algorithm=mixed), IRA just propagates the assignment
        for allocnos if the register pressure in the region for the
        corresponding pressure class is less than number of available
        hard registers for given pressure class.

    o Spill/restore code moving.  When IRA performs an allocation
      by traversing regions in top-down order, it does not know what
      happens below in the region tree.  Therefore, sometimes IRA
      misses opportunities to perform a better allocation.  A simple
      optimization tries to improve allocation in a region having
      subregions and containing in another region.  If the
      corresponding allocnos in the subregion are spilled, it spills
      the region allocno if it is profitable.  The optimization
      implements a simple iterative algorithm performing profitable
      transformations while they are still possible.  It is fast in
      practice, so there is no real need for a better time complexity

    o Code change.  After coloring, two allocnos representing the
      same pseudo-register outside and inside a region respectively
      may be assigned to different locations (hard-registers or
      memory).  In this case IRA creates and uses a new
      pseudo-register inside the region and adds code to move allocno
      values on the region's borders.  This is done during top-down
      traversal of the regions (file ira-emit.cc).  In some
      complicated cases IRA can create a new allocno to move allocno
      values (e.g. when a swap of values stored in two hard-registers
      is needed).  At this stage, the new allocno is marked as
      spilled.  IRA still creates the pseudo-register and the moves
      on the region borders even when both allocnos were assigned to
      the same hard-register.  If the reload pass spills a
      pseudo-register for some reason, the effect will be smaller
      because another allocno will still be in the hard-register.  In
      most cases, this is better then spilling both allocnos.  If
      reload does not change the allocation for the two
      pseudo-registers, the trivial move will be removed by
      post-reload optimizations.  IRA does not generate moves for
      allocnos assigned to the same hard register when the default
      regional allocation algorithm is used and the register pressure
      in the region for the corresponding pressure class is less than
      number of available hard registers for given pressure class.
      IRA also does some optimizations to remove redundant stores and
      to reduce code duplication on the region borders.

    o Flattening internal representation.  After changing code, IRA
      transforms its internal representation for several regions into
      one region representation (file ira-build.cc).  This process is
      called IR flattening.  Such process is more complicated than IR
      rebuilding would be, but is much faster.

    o After IR flattening, IRA tries to assign hard registers to all
      spilled allocnos.  This is implemented by a simple and fast
      priority coloring algorithm (see function
      ira_reassign_conflict_allocnos::ira-color.cc).  Here new allocnos
      created during the code change pass can be assigned to hard

    o At the end IRA calls the reload pass.  The reload pass
      communicates with IRA through several functions in file
      ira-color.cc to improve its decisions in

      * sharing stack slots for the spilled pseudos based on IRA info
        about pseudo-register conflicts.

      * reassigning hard-registers to all spilled pseudos at the end
        of each reload iteration.

      * choosing a better hard-register to spill based on IRA info
        about pseudo-register live ranges and the register pressure
        in places where the pseudo-register lives.

  IRA uses a lot of data representing the target processors.  These
  data are initialized in file ira.cc.

  If function has no loops (or the loops are ignored when
  -fira-algorithm=CB is used), we have classic Chaitin-Briggs
  coloring (only instead of separate pass of coalescing, we use hard
  register preferencing).  In such case, IRA works much faster
  because many things are not made (like IR flattening, the
  spill/restore optimization, and the code change).

  Literature is worth to read for better understanding the code:

  o Preston Briggs, Keith D. Cooper, Linda Torczon.  Improvements to
    Graph Coloring Register Allocation.

  o David Callahan, Brian Koblenz.  Register allocation via
    hierarchical graph coloring.

  o Keith Cooper, Anshuman Dasgupta, Jason Eckhardt. Revisiting Graph
    Coloring Register Allocation: A Study of the Chaitin-Briggs and
    Callahan-Koblenz Algorithms.

  o Guei-Yuan Lueh, Thomas Gross, and Ali-Reza Adl-Tabatabai. Global
    Register Allocation Based on Graph Fusion.

  o Michael D. Smith and Glenn Holloway.  Graph-Coloring Register
    Allocation for Irregular Architectures

  o Vladimir Makarov. The Integrated Register Allocator for GCC.

  o Vladimir Makarov.  The top-down register allocator for irregular
    register file architectures.

◆ ira_conflicts_p

◆ ira_reg_equiv

◆ ira_reg_equiv_len

◆ ira_use_lra_p

bool ira_use_lra_p
Communication between the Integrated Register Allocator (IRA) and
   the rest of the compiler.
   Copyright (C) 2006-2024 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   Contributed by Vladimir Makarov <vmakarov@redhat.com>.

This file is part of GCC.

GCC is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later

GCC is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GCC; see the file COPYING3.  If not see
True when we use LRA instead of reload pass for the current
True when we use LRA instead of reload pass for the current

Referenced by backend_init_target(), based_loc_descr(), compute_frame_pointer_to_fb_displacement(), do_reload(), emit_move_list(), find_costs_and_classes(), ira(), ira_adjust_equiv_reg_cost(), ira_costs(), ira_init_once(), ira_mark_new_stack_slot(), ira_reuse_stack_slot(), ira_sort_regnos_for_alter_reg(), ira_subloop_allocnos_can_differ_p(), reg_loc_descriptor(), scan_one_insn(), setup_reg_renumber(), update_equiv_regs(), and vt_initialize().